The phrase "did you know" is used when you are asking someone if they know a fact, & you already know that fact. For example, you might say "Did you know that the blue whale is the largest mammal?" where "the blue whale is the largest mammal" is a fact that you know. An appropriate answer would be "no" if the person you are asking did not already know that before you asked your question, or "yes" if they already knew that fact. Once you"ve asked the question, they know! "Did you know" can be used khổng lồ ask about any kind of fact. You are basically saying, "I know this, và I want lớn know if you know this too." Below are some common questions people might ask:

Did you know I used khổng lồ be a marathon runner?
Did you know Jeff"s sister just got married?
Did you know there was a parade last weekend?
Did you know the Smith"s are selling their house?

In each of these examples, the speaker wants khổng lồ know if the listener already knew the given information before the question was asked. The speaker already knows the given information.

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The phrase "do you know" is usually used when you are trying to lớn find out information that you vì not know. For example, you might say "Do you know where Patty"s office is?" The person you are asking will usually give you the information you want, if they can: "Patty"s office is the third one on the right." Below are some common questions people might ask:

Do you know how to replace a headlight bulb in your car?
Do you know how much a trip lớn Cancún costs?
Do you know where the nearest mall is?
Do you know if the Smith"s are selling their house?

In each of these examples, the speaker wants to lớn know some piece of information, và they hope the listener can tell them. The speaker does not know the information being asked for.

The main difference is that you use "did you know" when you already know the information that follows and you use "do you know" when you do not know the information that follows, but you want lớn know.

I hope this helps.

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How to lớn use who and whom correctly? The answer is simple: If you can replace the word with “he” or “she” then you should use who. However, if you can replace it with “him” or “her,” use whom. Let’s look at some examples and do a who vs whom quiz.

What’s the difference between who & whom? These are two words that cause a lot of confusion, even fornative-English speakers. So, it’s well worth taking a few minutes khổng lồ know the difference between the two. Below, we’ve provided an easy guide on understanding the grammatical rules. We’ve also given some examples on how khổng lồ use who and whom correctly. If you want khổng lồ avoid mistakes in using who vs whom, read on.

There are a few rules when you should use who and whom. “Who” is a subjective pronoun. “Whom” is an objective pronoun. That simply means that “who” is always subject khổng lồ a verb, & that “whom” is always working as an object in a sentence. We’ve explained what subjects and objects in a sentence are.

But what does that mean? “Who,” the subjective pronoun, is the doer of an action. For example, “That’s the girl who scored the goal.” It is the subject of “scored” because the girl was doing the scoring. Then, “whom,” as the objective pronoun, receives the action. For instance, “Whom do you lượt thích best?” It is the object of “like”.

General rule for who vs whom:

Who should be used khổng lồ refer to lớn the subject of asentence.

Whom should be used to lớn refer khổng lồ the object of a verb orpreposition.

Just be careful, because there is an exception: There is one context in which you should always use whom: after a preposition at the beginning of a sentence or clause. For example,Towhom did you address that letter? (Not “to who”). And,Myteacher, for whom I’m doing some research, is currently in a meeting. (Not “for who”).

The difference between who và whom explained

The difference between “who” và “whom” is the same as the difference between “I” và “me;” “he” and “him;” “she” and “her;” etc. "Who", lượt thích other pronouns such as: I he, và she, is asubject.So, it is the person performing the action of the verb. On the other hand, "whom", acts like me, him, & her in a sentence. It is the object. Therefore, it is the person to/about/for whom the action is being done.

Whom is also the correct choice after a preposition: with whom, one of whom, not “with who, one ofwho.”

Easy tip lớn tell the difference between who và whom

We explained that “who” is a pronoun lượt thích “I” or “he.” Also, “whom” is a pronoun like “me” and “him.” So, sometimes it can help you khổng lồ rewrite the sentence và replace who/whom with another pronoun so that you can see the relationships more clearly.

If you can replace the word with “he” or “’she” then you should use who. However, if you can replace it with “him” or “her,” use whom. Let’s look at some examples.

How to use who và whom correctly: sentence examples (with an explanation)

Just remember that if you can replace a word with “he” or “she” then you should use "who". However, if you can replace it with “him” or “her,” use "whom". We’ll test this in the following sentences.

Example sentences: Correct use of who

This is who warned me. (It is He/she warned me. Not “him/her” warned me)

Jack is the one who wants khổng lồ go. (He/she wants to lớn go. Not “him/her” wants lớn go)

I need lớn know who makes the final decision. (He/she makes the final decision. Not “him/her” makes the final decision).

I know who your best friend is! (He/she is your best friend. Not him/her is your best friend).

Example sentences: Correct use of whom

With whom am I speaking? (I am speaking with him/her. Not I am speaking with he/she)

To whom this may concern. (This concerns him/her. Not this concerns he/she)

A number offriends went to lớn the cinema, one of whom was the birthday boy. (The birthday boy was one of them. Not the birthday boy was one of they.)

Actually, sheknew very little about the man with whom she had promised to lớn spend the summer. (She has promised lớn spend the summer with him. Not she has promised to lớn spend the summer with he.)

Grammar Quiz: Who vs Whom in English language

Now that we’ve gone through thegrammarrules và shown you some examples, let’s chạy thử your understanding with this quick “Who vs Whom” test.

Quiz: Select “who” or “whom” for each sentence

Who/Whomis paying for this?

He saw a gentleman who/whom he presumed to be thedirector, andtold him about Helen.

At the porch he met two of the landed gentry, one of who/whom he knew.

Who/whomwants dinner?

Here in dwells an old man with who/whom I would lượt thích to converse.

This is the lady who/whom I told you about.

Who/whomis going khổng lồ the ball game?

Lisa is the girl with who/whom I’m driving khổng lồ Maine.

Who/Whom did the candidate choose for his running mate?

Who/Whom were you talking just now?

Click here khổng lồ view the answer key.

The Advanced Who vs Whom

We’ve covered the basics of who vs whom, but it can get slightly more complicated. For example, you use the tip we’ve presented earlier that if you can replace a word with “he” or “she” then you should use who. And, if you can replace it with “him” or “her,” use whom. But what if that doesn’t work, or it doesn’t fit your sentence?

We’ve used the following example sentence before:

A number offriends went khổng lồ the cinema, one of who/whom was the birthday boy.

Complex sentences: Clauses

This sentence is difficult because it contains a clause. A complex sentence contains an independent clause và one or more dependent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, but a dependent clause (even though it has a subject & a verb) cannot stand alone. In the example, “A number of friends went lớn the cinema” is one clause. The other clause is “one of who/whom was the birthday boy.”

The last clause is adjectival clause. Khổng lồ put it simply: it means this part of the sentence aims khổng lồ tell us more about the other part of the sentence. Who went lớn the cinema? Friends & one of them was the birthday boy.

The key lies in the subject & object of the clauses. In “whom was the birthday boy,” “the birthday boy” is the subject,“was” isthe verb, and “whom” is the object.

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Need lớn read more on subjects & objects in sentences? check out our other blog post:Grammar 101: Subjects và Objects in English.